Appendix A of Part 43, Title 14 - Major Modifications, Major Repairs and Preventive Maintenance (Appendix A of Part 43, FAR) (2023)

Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Modifications, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

(A) main changes-

(1) Major changes to the hull.Changes to the following parts and changes to the following types, if not listed in the aircraft specifications issued by the FAA, are major changes to the aircraft structure:


(yo)tail surfaces.


(4)engine mounts.

(v)Control system.


(viii)hull or float.

(viii)Elements of an airframe, including spars, ribs, fittings, shock absorbers, struts, cowling, fairings, and counterweights.

(ix)Hydraulic and electrical drive system of the components.

(X)rotor blades.

(XI)Changes in empty weight or empty balance that result in an increase in the aircraft's maximum certificated weight or center of gravity limits.

(xi)Major design changes to fuel, oil, cooling, heating, cabin pressurization, electrical, hydraulic, defrost, or exhaust systems.

(XIII)Changes to the wing or fixed or movable control surfaces that affect flapping and chatter behavior.

(2) Major engine changes.The following engine modifications are major engine modifications unless noted in the engine specifications issued by the FAA.

(UE)Conversion of an aircraft engine from one approved model to another, including changes in compression ratio, propeller reduction gear, impeller gear ratios, or replacement of major engine parts that require extensive overhaul and testing the motor.

(yo)Modifications to the engine by replacing aircraft engine components with parts not supplied by the original equipment manufacturer or with parts not expressly approved by ANAC.

(iii)Installation of a non-approved accessory for the engine.

(4)Removal of accessories listed as mandatory equipment in the aircraft or engine specification.

(v)Installation of components that are not approved for installation.

(vi)Modifications of any kind in order to use fuel of a grade or power different from that indicated in the engine specification.

(3) Big prop changes.The following modifications to a propeller, unless permitted in propeller specifications issued by the FAA, are major propeller modifications:

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(UE)Sheet design changes.

(yo)Cube design changes.

(iii)Changes in the design of the regulator or controller.

(4)Installation of a propeller regulator or sail system.

(v)Installation of the propeller de-icing system.

(vi)Installation of non-approved parts for the propeller.

(4) Major changes to the device.Major design changes made contrary to the equipment manufacturer's recommendations or in accordance with the FAA Airworthiness Directive are major equipment changes. In addition, changes in the basic design of radio communication and navigation equipment approved under a model certification or technical standard regulation that affect frequency stability, noise level, sensitivity, selectivity, distortion, radiation parasitic, HVAC characteristics, or compliance with test environment conditions have Other changes that affect device performance are also major changes.

(B) major repairs-

(1) Major hull repairs.Repairs to the following parts of a hull and repairs of the following types that involve reinforcing, reinforcing, splicing, and fabrication of primary structural members or their replacement when the replacement is by fabrication, such as riveting or welding, are major hull repairs.

(UE)Closet beams.

(yo)Monohull or semi-monohull wings or control surfaces.

(iii)wing spars or chord members.


(v)Stringer flanges.

(vi)Truss bars.

(viii)Fine barred leaves.

(viii)Keels and spines of boat hulls or floats.

(ix)Pressure elements made of corrugated sheet metal, serving as flange material for wing or tail surfaces.

(X)Main wing ribs and compression elements.

(XI)Wing mounts or glue.

(xi)engine mounts.

(XIII)fuselage spars.

(xiv)Elements of side beams, horizontal beams or bulkheads.

(XV)Suspenders and support straps for the main seat.

(XVI)landing gear clamp mounts.

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(xix)Skis and ski racks.

(XX)Parts of the control system, such as B. control columns, pedals, axles, brackets, or horns.

(xxx)Repairs with change of material.

(XIII)Repair of damaged areas in stressed metal or plywood covering more than 15 cm in any direction.

(XXIII)Repair of parts of the skin with additional sutures.

(XXIV)Repair of skin layers.

(xiv)The repair of three or more adjacent wings or control surface ribs, or the leading edge of wings and control surfaces between such adjacent ribs.

(xxi)Repair of fabric panels where more area is required than the repair of two adjacent ribs.

(xvii)Fabric replacement on fabric-covered parts such as wings, fuselages, tail units, and control surfaces.

(xviii)Repair, including resettlement, of demountable or integral fuel tanks and oil tanks.

(2) Major repairs to power plants.Repairs to the following engine parts and repairs of the following types are major engine repairs:

(UE)Separation or disassembly of a crankcase or crankshaft of a reciprocating engine equipped with an integrated compressor.

(yo)Separation or disassembly of a crankcase or crankshaft of a reciprocating engine equipped with a propeller reduction gear other than of the spur type.

(iii)Special repairs to structural parts of the engine by welding, plating, plating or other methods.

(3) Major propeller repairs.Repairs of the following types to a propeller are major propeller repairs:

(UE)Any repair or straightening of steel blades.

(yo)Repair or machining of steel hubs.

(iii)leaf shortening.

(4)Overturning of wooden propellers.

(v)Replacement of outer plates in fixed pitch wooden propellers.

(vi)Repair of slotted holes in the hub of fixed pitch wooden propellers.

(viii)Embedded in wooden veneers.

(viii)Repair of composite blades.

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(ix)substitute for lace fabric.

(X)Replacement of the plastic cover.

(XI)Repair of propeller governors.

(xi)Checking the controllable pitch propellers.

(XIII)Repair deep dents, cuts, scars, nicks, etc. and straighten foil.

(xiv)The repair or replacement of the internal elements of the blades.

(4) Major appliance repairs.Device repairs of the following type are major device repairs:

(UE)Calibration and repair of instruments.

(yo)Calibration of radio equipment.

(iii)Rewinding the field coil of an electrical accessory.

(4)Complete disassembly of complex hydraulic power valves.

(v)Review of pressurized carburettors and pressurized fuel, oil and hydraulic pumps.

(C) Preventive Maintenance.Preventive maintenance is limited to the following jobs, as long as they are not complex assembly jobs:

(1)Disassembly, assembly and repair of undercarriage tires.

(2)Replacement of the elastic shock cords in the landing gear.

(3)Service suspension shocks by adding oil, air, or both.

(4)Undercarriage wheel bearing maintenance, such as cleaning and greasing.

(5)Replacement of defective security cables or broken keys.

(6)Lubrication that does not require disassembly other than the removal of non-structural parts such as cover plates, hoods and fairings.

(7)Creation of simple fabric patches that do not require sewing or removing structural parts or control surfaces. For balloons, make minor repairs to envelope fabric (as defined and in accordance with the balloon manufacturer's instructions) that do not require repair or replacement of the loading tape.

(8)Filling of hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic tank.

(9)It is not necessary to touch up the fuselage trim, balloon baskets, flat surfaces (excluding balanced control surfaces), fairings, canopies, landing gear, cockpit or cockpit interior when removing or dismantle a major structure or functional system.

(10)The application of a preservative or protective material to components that do not require disassembly of a primary structure or operating system and such coating is not prohibited or contrary to good practice.

(11)Repair upholstery and decorative furnishings in the cockpit, cockpit, or balloon basket interior when the repair does not require removal of a major structure or operating system, or disrupts an operating system or affects the main structure of the aircraft.

(12)Easily make minor repairs to fairings, non-structural cover plates, fairings, and small patches and reinforcements without altering the contour in a way that interferes with proper airflow.

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(13)Replacement of side windows when this work does not affect the structure or an operating system such as controls, electrical equipment, etc.

(14)Changing seat belts.

(15)Replace seats or seat parts with aircraft-approved replacement parts without disassembling the main frame or operating system.

(sixteen)Troubleshoot and repair faulty circuits in landing lights wiring circuits.

(17)Replacement of lamps, reflectors and lenses of position and floor lights.

(18)Change of wheels and skis when calculation of weight and centering is not required.

(19)Replace any canopy that does not require removal of the propeller or disconnection of the flight controls.

(20)Replace or clean spark plugs and adjust spark plug gap.

(21)Replace all hose connections except hydraulic connections.

(22)Replacement of prefabricated fuel lines.

(23)Cleaning or replacement of fuel and oil filters or filter elements.

(24)Replacement and maintenance of batteries.

(25)Clean the balloon burner pilot and main jets according to the balloon manufacturer's instructions.

(26)Replacement or adaptation of standard non-structural fasteners related to surgeries.

(27)Interchange of balloon baskets and burners in envelopes when the basket or burner is marked interchangeable on the balloon pattern certificate data and the baskets and burners are specifically designed for quick removal and installation.

(28)Installation of anti-misfueling devices to reduce the diameter of fuel tank filler openings, provided that the specific device is part of the aircraft manufacturer's aircraft type certification data, the aircraft manufacturer provided FAA-approved instructions for the installation of the specific device and the installation does not require removal of the existing tank filler opening.

(29)Removal, inspection and replacement of magnetic chip detectors.

(30)Inspection and maintenance tasks required and specifically identified as preventive maintenance on a primary category aircraft type certificate or as a specific preventive maintenance and inspection program approved by the supplemental type certificate holder when performed on a primary category aircraft , as long as:

(UE)They are carried out by the holder of at least one private pilot license issued in accordance withPart 61 of this chapterwho is the registered owner (including joint owners) of the aircraft in question and holds an aircraft certificate of competency (1) issued by the holder of the main category aircraft production certificate to which an approved specific training program applies§ 21.24 of this subchapter; or (2) issued by another entity that has a course approved by the Administrator; Is

(yo)Inspections and maintenance are performed in accordance with the instructions contained in the specific inspection and preventive maintenance program approved as part of the aircraft type design or supplemental type design.

(31)Removal and replacement of separate navigation and communications equipment that is mounted in the forward instrument panel and uses tray-mount connectors that connect the device when the device is installed in the instrument panel (excluding automatic flight control systems, transponders and microwave frequency range). Equipment (DME)). The Approved Unit must be designed to be easily and repeatedly removed and replaced, and appropriate instructions must be provided. Before using the device as intended, a bump test must be performed in accordance with the relevant sections of thePart 91 of this chapter.

(Sections 313, 601 to 610 and 1102, Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended (49 USC 1354,1421through1430mi1502); (49 USC 106 (g)(Revised Pub. L. 97-449, Jan. 21, 1983); Is14 CFR 11.45)

[Doc. No. 1993,29 FR 5451, April 23, 1964, modified by Emd. 43-14,37FR 14291, June 19, 1972; amendment 43-23,47FR41086, September 16, 1982; amendment 43-24,49 FR 44602, November 7, 1984; amendment 43-25,51FR40703, November 7, 1986; amendment 43-27,52FR 17277, May 6, 1987; amendment 43-34,57FR41369, September 9, 1992; amendment 43-36,61FR 19501, May 1, 1996; amendment 43-45,77FR 71096, November 29, 2012; Precedent No. FAA-2021-0237; Amendment No. 43-52,87FR 31414, 24. mayo 2022]


What is contained in Appendix A of Part 43? ›

Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance. (1) Airframe major alterations. Alterations of the following parts and alterations of the following types, when not listed in the aircraft specifications issued by the FAA, are airframe major alterations: (i) Wings.

Which appendix to 14 CFR Part 43 outlines which maintenance activities are minor and major repairs? ›

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance - Content Details - CFR-2012-title14-vol1-part43-appA.

What is 14 CFR Appendix E to Part 43? ›

Appendix E to Part 43 - Altimeter System Test and Inspection. Each person performing the altimeter system tests and inspections required by § 91.411 of this chapter must comply with the following: (a) Static pressure system: (1) Ensure freedom from entrapped moisture and restrictions.

What does Far Part 43 relate to? ›

FAA Regulation for Aircraft Mechanics

Part 43 – Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding and Alteration, is one of the three core regulations or foundations that set the standards for aircraft maintenance for the U.S. to have a safe and efficient aviation industry.

What is considered a major repair? ›

Major repairs involve large expenditures that extend the useful life of an asset. For example, the replacement of a building roof is considered a major repair if it allows the building to be used beyond its normal operating life. Or, the engine in a forklift is replaced, thereby extending the lifespan of the equipment.

What is far part 43 and all the different types of repair and alteration? ›

FAR 43 (Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alteration) prescribes rules governing the maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alteration of any aircraft having a US airworthiness certificate, foreign-registered civil aircraft used in common carriage or carriage of mail under the ...

What is the difference between major repair and major alteration? ›

A repair is maintenance that takes place to restore a typecertificated product to "condition for safe operation." And, an alteration is maintenance that is performed that adds to and/or removes from the type-certificated product's configuration..

What is the difference between major and minor repair? ›

Minor alteration means an alteration other than a major alteration. (2) That is not done according to accepted practices or cannot be done by elementary operations. Minor repair means a repair other than a major repair. Not much help when we are considering a specific repair or alteration.

What is required by 14 CFR Part 43 Appendix D when performing an annual 100 hour inspection on a reciprocating engine aircraft? ›

(a) Each person performing an annual or 100-hour inspection shall, before that inspection, remove or open all necessary inspection plates, access doors, fairing, and cowling. He shall thoroughly clean the aircraft and aircraft engine.

What is CFR Part 48? ›

eCFR :: 14 CFR Part 48 -- Registration and Marking Requirements for Small Unmanned Aircraft (FAR Part 48)

Which appendix to far 43 contains the list of preventive maintenance that can be accomplished by a certificated pilot? ›

(1) Part 43, appendix A, paragraph (c) contains the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) list of tasks that meet the requirements of the preventive maintenance definition. If a task or maintenance function does not appear in the list, it is not preventive maintenance.

What is considered preventive maintenance? ›

In practice, a preventive maintenance schedule may include things such as cleaning, lubrication, oil changes, adjustments, repairs, inspecting and replacing parts, and partial or complete overhauls that are regularly scheduled.

What is the difference between Part 145 and Part 43? ›

The purpose of part 43 is to ensure that an aircraft is “airworthy” after work has been performed. Part 145 sets forth safety standards necessary to inspect and maintain aircraft and aircraft parts. These safety standards ultimately benefit the maintenance personnel, passengers, and flight crew.

What does the FAR apply to? ›

The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) is the primary regulation for use by all executive agencies in their acquisition of supplies and services with appropriated funds. The FAR also contains standard solicitation provisions and contract clauses and the various agency FAR supplements.

What is a FAR requirement? ›

FAR requirements apply to how the government procures goods and services, contractor responsibilities and obligations and accounting and pricing considerations leading to DCAA or other government audits.

At what point is a vehicle not worth repairing? ›

If the cost of repairs exceeds the car's value, it's probably best to get a new car instead. Sometimes, when a car with high mileage needs a significant repair or if your car is totaled, you might consider replacing it with a new or used vehicle.

What makes a car unrepairable? ›

A Total Loss/Non-Repairable Vehicle meets one of the following criteria: The vehicle has been declared by the owner solely as a source of parts or scrap metal. The vehicle has been completely stripped (surgical strip). The vehicle is a completely burned shell with no usable or repairable parts.

What determines whether a given repair or alteration is major or minor? ›

The bottom line is that if you are changing how a system works, the basic structural integrity, or the certified operational characteristics of the aircraft, you are making a major alteration. If not, it's generally a minor alteration.

What are the 4 levels of maintenance? ›

4 types of maintenance strategy, which one to chose?
  • Corrective maintenance.
  • Preventive maintenance.
  • Risk-based maintenance.
  • Condition-based maintenance.

What are considered major repairs according to the EPA? ›

1. Major Repairs
  • EPA defines major repairs as “Maintenance, service, or repair that involves removal of the appliances"
  • Apart from these, any other repairs are considered as “minor repairs.”
  • An evaporator or condenser coils are removed/replaced if there is an irreparable flaw in it.
Mar 16, 2021

What is the difference between a major and minor FAA modification? ›

A major alteration requires the use of FAA-approved technical data. Minor alterations only require data that is acceptable to the FAA. During an evaluation, an anticipated major alteration may be subsequently classified as a major change in type design, and thus would require application for an amended TC or STC.

What is the highest level of maintenance? ›

Level 5 Maintenance

The most complex maintenance operations are those classified as Level 5. As a general rule, they are entrusted to the manufacturer or rebuilder, and the means used are similar to those used in manufacturing.

Where do you find what the FAA considers major repairs and alterations? ›

14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance.

What is major modification? ›

Major modifications are defined at 40 CFR 51.166(b)(2) as “any physical change in or change in the method of operation of a major stationary source that would result in: A significant emissions increase of a regulated NSR pollutant; and.

Is it better to have 2 majors or a major and a minor? ›

Another potential benefit of doing a double major over a major and minor is that it can give you more career options. You can pursue positions in either subject area whereas, if you only have a minor in the second area, this won't necessarily increase your career options.

Is a minor or major better? ›

In a Bachelor's Degree, the Major is the main focus of your studies and the Minor is a secondary specialization. Your Major should be the field of study in which you wish to pursue a professional career, while the Minor can be either a complementary subject to that goal or a further exploration of a hobby or interest.

Is it better to have a major and minor? ›

Most colleges do not require a minor to earn a bachelor's degree. A minor can complement your major and help job applicants stand out. Before declaring a minor, weigh the costs against the benefits. Choose a minor based on your interests, goals, and major.

What part of 14 CFR allows an A&P mechanic to perform maintenance on environmental systems? ›

eCFR :: 14 CFR 43.3 -- Persons authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, and alterations.

Does Part 43 require a pilot who has performed maintenance on his aircraft to make an entry in the aircraft records? ›


However, part 43, § 43.9 states that each person who maintains, performs preventive maintenance, rebuilds, or alters an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part shall make an entry in the maintenance record of that equipment.

In what far part and appendix may a maintenance technician find the required scope and detail of an annual and 100 hr inspection? ›

Most airframe manufacturers will provide a boilerplate progressive maintenance plan. FAR 43, Appendix D, Scope and Detail of Items To Be Included in Annual and 100-Hour Inspections, contains a list of general items to be checked during inspections.

What is the title of 14 CFR Part 43? ›

eCFR :: 14 CFR Part 43 -- Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, Rebuilding, and Alteration (FAR Part 43)

What is the difference between Part 46 and Part 48? ›

There are two types of training requirements in 30 CFR, Part 46 and Part 48. Part 48 covers all underground mines, surface coal mines, and some surface metal/nonmetal mines. Part 46 on the other hand covers very specific types of mines. NOTE: If you are a contractor at a Part 46 mine you may also be under Part 48.

What is CFR Part 14? ›

14 CFR Overview

Title 14 is the principal set of rules and regulations (sometimes called administrative law) issued by the Department of Transportation and Federal Aviation Administration, federal agencies of the United States which oversee Aeronautics and Space.

What are the 5 preventive maintenance? ›

5 Examples of Preventive Maintenance in Action
  • Preventive Maintenance Equipment Inspections. ...
  • Clean Equipment Regularly to Minimize Dirt and Dust. ...
  • Lubricate Rotating Parts to Prevent Premature Wear. ...
  • Check Machinery Power to Optimize Energy Efficiency. ...
  • Repair or Replace Equipment Before it Fails.
Oct 17, 2022

What are the 3 levels of maintenance work? ›

Repair levels
  • Organizational level maintenance.
  • Intermediate level maintenance.
  • Depot-level maintenance.

What are the 8 preventive maintenance? ›

They are purchasing, operator training, technician training, scheduled maintenance, repairs, consumables, fleet sizing and machine disposal.

What is contained in Appendix B? ›

DEFINITIONS. This Appendix defines terms that are used in the Agreement and other Appendices to the Agreement. Any capitalized term used in the Agreement that is not defined here, or in the Agreement or other Appendices, has the meaning provided in 45 CFR 155.20.

Which appendix of FAR 43 covers the testing and inspection requirements for the ATC transponder system? ›

Appendix F to Part 43 - ATC Transponder Tests and Inspections. The ATC transponder tests required by § 91.413 of this chapter may be conducted using a bench check or portable test equipment and must meet the requirements prescribed in paragraphs (a) through (j) of this appendix.

What information is published in AC 43 16? ›

Issued monthly, the Aviation Maintenance Alerts are prepared from information submitted by persons who operate and maintain civil aeronautical products. The Alerts provide a uniform means through which safety and service experience may be interchanged.

What is appendix B of FAR Part 43? ›

Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations. (3) Forward a copy of that form to the FAA Aircraft Registration Branch in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, within 48 hours after the aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, or appliance is approved for return to service.

What is the root cause of appendix? ›

Appendicitis may be caused by various infections such as virus, bacteria, or parasites, in your digestive tract. Or it may happen when the tube that joins your large intestine and appendix is blocked or trapped by stool. Sometimes tumors can cause appendicitis. The appendix then becomes sore and swollen.

What is appendix A and B? ›

The first appendix referred to in the paper would be named Appendix A. The second appendix referred to in the paper would be named Appendix B. If you have more than 26 appendices, start the alphabet over with AA, BB, CC, and so on. If there is only one appendix, it is just called Appendix.

Who is authorized to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance and alterations? ›

(d) A person working under the supervision of a holder of a mechanic or repairman certificate may perform the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alterations that his supervisor is authorized to perform, if the supervisor personally observes the work being done to the extent necessary to ensure that it is being ...

Can a pilot perform preventive maintenance? ›

In addition to FAA-certificated repair stations, mechanics, and persons working under their supervision, owners and pilots are allowed to perform preventive maintenance according to 14 CFR 43.3(g).

What is the purpose of the AC 43.13-1B? ›

AC 43.13-1B says: "This advisory circular (AC) pertains to aircraft repairs and inspections. The repair data in this AC is for minor repairs to non-pressurized areas of an aircraft. This data can be used if there is no repair or maintenance instructions published by the manufacturer for a needed repair.

What is the title of the AC 43.13-1B? ›

AC 43.13-1B - Acceptable Methods, Techniques, and Practices - Aircraft Inspection and Repair [Large AC.


1. Major or Minor?
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4. MRO Project Management: Maintenance, Repair, Overhaul Video Case Study | Exepron
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