Sedative, hypnotic and anxiolytic consumption disorders. Drugs: benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine antagonists, barbiturates, anticonvulsants, and others (2023)

  1. López-Muñoz F, Ucha-Udabe R, Alamo C. The history of barbiturates a century after their clinical introduction.neuropsychiatric treatment. 1 december 2005 (4): 329-43.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  2. Anxiolytics, sedatives/hypnotics and various benzodiazepines. lexicon Available in Accessed: 10/12/16.

  3. Łukasik-Głębocka M, Sommerfeld K, Tezyk A, Zielińska-Psuja B, Paniański P, Żaba C. Flubromazolam: a non-uwe benzodiazepine met krachtige werking.Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2016. 54 (1): 66-8.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  4. American Psychiatric Association. Addiction and Substance Use Disorders.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5. Auflage, text revision. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2022. 620-626.

  5. Simon, R.Psychiatry and law for doctors. 1998.

  6. Stahl, S. Anxiety and Anxiolytic Disorders.Application of Stahl's essential psychopharmacological and neuroscientific principles and practice. 2013.

  7. Sigel E, Luscher BP. A closer look at the high affinity benzodiazepine binding site on GABAA receptors.Curr Top Med Chem. 2011. 11 (2): 241-6.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  8. Vinkers CH, Olivier B. Mechanisms underlying tolerance after long-term benzodiazepine use: a future for subtype-selective GABA(A) receptor modulators?.Pharmaceutical Sciences adv.. 2012. 2012: 416864.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  9. Bateson AN Fundamental pharmacological mechanisms in tolerance and withdrawal from benzodiazepines.Curr Pharm Des. 2002. 8 (1): 5-21.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  10. CENTERS FOR THE CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF DISEASES. Health, USA 2015. Available at Accessed: 10/12/16.

  11. SAMHSA. Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Findings from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Available at Accessed: 01/06/17.

  12. Fenton MC, Keyes KM, Martins SS, Hasin DS. The role of a prescription in the use, abuse, and dependence of anxiety drugs.Bin J Psychiatry. 2010 Oct. 167(10):1247-53.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  13. The epidemiology and treatment of drug disorders in the United States. Novak SP, Calvin SL, Glasheen C, Edlund MJ.Psychiatric disorders: trends and developments. 2011. 2011.[full text].

  14. Kaplan, Sadock.Complete textbook on psychiatry. 10 Fun. 2007. 455.

  15. McCabe SE, West BT, Morales M, Cranford JA, Boyd CJ. Is the early onset of non-medical prescription drug use indicative of later prescription drug abuse and addiction? Results of a national survey.Searches. 2007 dez. 102(12):1920-30.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  16. drug-addicted patients. Saunders.Massachusetts General Hospital Manual of General Hospital Psychiatrie. 6to. 2010.

  17. O'Brien PC. Benzodiazepine use, abuse and dependence.Psychiatry J Clin. 2005. 66 Supplement 2:28-33.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  18. Smink BE, Egberts AC, Lusthof KJ, Uges DR, de Gier JJ. The association between benzodiazepine use and traffic accidents: a systematic review of the literature.CNS drugs. 24. Augustus 2010 (8): 639-53.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  19. Beck O, Stephanson N, Sandqvist S, Franck J. Detection of drug abuse in exhaled air using a rapid collection device: comparison with plasma, urine and self-report of 47 drug users.J Atmung Res. 7. June 2013 (2): 026006.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  20. Wiviott-Tishler L, Wiviott SD, Hyman SE. Sedatieve hypnotica en anxiolytica. [PubMed] Freidman L, Fleming NF, Roberts D, Hyman SE.Resource book on substance abuse and addiction.. 1996. 203-17.

  21. Kawasaki SS, Jacapraro JS, Rastegar DA. Safety and efficacy of a fixed dose phenobarbital protocol for benzodiazepine detoxification in hospitalized patients.Substance abuse treatment J. 2012 Oct. 43(3): 331-4.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  22. Bobes J, Rubio G, Terán A, Cervera G, López-Gómez V, Vilardaga I. Pregabalin for the cessation of long-term benzodiazepine use: an evaluation of its efficacy in everyday clinical practice.European psychiatry. Mayonnaise 2012. 27(4):301-7.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  23. Peles E, Hetzroni T, Bar-Hamburger R, Adelson M, Schreiber S. Melatonin for perceived sleep disturbances associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal in patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.Searches. 2007 dez. 102(12):1947-53.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  24. Allain H, Coz FL, Borderies P, Schuck S, Giclais BL, Patat A, et al. Use of zolpidem 10 mg as a replacement for benzodiazepines in 84 patients with insomnia.Clínica Hum Psicofarmacol. 1998. 13: 551-9.

  25. Oschman A, McCabe T, Kuhn RJ. Dexmedetomidine for opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal in pediatric patients.Ben J Health Syst Pharm. 1 July 2011. 68(13):1233-8.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  26. Riemann D, Perlis ML. The treatment of chronic insomnia: a review of benzodiazepine receptor agonists and psychological and behavioral therapies.sleep with rev. 13. June 2009 (3): 205-14.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  27. Vicens C, Socias I, Mateu C, Leiva A, Bejarano F, Sempere E. Comparative efficacy of two primary care interventions supporting withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use: a protocol for a pooled randomized clinical trial.Family practice BMC. 2011. 12:23.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  28. Rickels K, Case WG, Schweizer E, García-España F, Fridman R. Long-term benzodiazepine users 3 years after participation in a cessation program.Bin J Psychiatry. June 1991, 148(6):757-61.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  29. Allgulander C, Borg S, Vikander B. A 4 to 6 year follow-up of 50 patients with primary sedative-hypnotic drug addiction.Bin J Psychiatry. 1984 dez. 141(12):1580-2.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  30. de Gier NA, Gorgels WJ, Lucassen PL, Oude Voshaar R, Mulder J, Zitman F. Long-term discontinuation of benzodiazepine use: 10-year exercise. 28. June 2011 (3): 253-9.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  31. Baillargeon L, Landreville P, Verreault R, Beauchemin JP, Grégoire JP, Morin CM. Discontinuation of benzodiazepines in insomniac older adults treated with cognitive behavioral therapy in combination with reduction: a randomized trial.CMJ. 11. november 2003. 169(10):1015-20.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  32. Marraffa JM, Cohen V, Howland MA. Antidotes for toxicological emergencies: a practical overview.Ben J Health Syst Pharm. Feb. 1, 2012. 69(3):199-212.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  33. Holzman SB, Rastegar DA. AST: A simplified three-part tool for coping with alcohol withdrawal.J Addicted Med. 2016 may-june. 10(3):190-5.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  34. Bezchlibnyk-Butler et al.Clinical Manual of Psychotropic Drugs. 4to. 2000.

  35. Paquin AM, Zimmerman K, Rudolph JL. Risk versus risk: a review of benzodiazepine withdrawal in older adults.Advice Drug safe. 13 July 2014 (7): 919-34.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  36. Barrons R, Roberts N. The role of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in alcohol withdrawal syndrome.J Clin Pharm Ther. 35. april 2010 (2): 153-67.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  37. Perry EC. Hospital management of acute alcohol withdrawal syndrome.CNS drugs. Mayonnaise 2014. 28(5):401-10.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  38. Freynhagen R, Backonja M, Schug S, Lyndon G, Parsons B, Watt S, et al. Pregabalin for the treatment of drug and alcohol withdrawal symptoms: a comprehensive review.CNS drugs. 30 december 2016 (12): 1191-1200.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  39. Mo Y, Thomas MC, Karras GE Jr. Barbiturates for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome: a systematic review of clinical trials.J Intensive care. 32. april 2016: 101-7.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  40. Zimmerman HJ. Benzodiazepines, Psychotropic Agents and Anticonvulsants.Hepatotoxicity: The harmful effects of drugs and other chemicals on the liver.. 1999. 491-3.

  41. Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI, Franke K, MacLaughlin DS, Harmatz JS, Allen MD, et al. Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of intravenous, intramuscular, and oral lorazepam in humans.J Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1979 Jan 68(1): 57-63.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  42. Wong A, Benedict NJ, Armahizer MJ, Kane-Gill SL. Evaluation of ketamine as an adjunct to benzodiazepines for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome.Ann Farmacother. Jan 49, 2015(1): 14-9.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  43. Gopalan P, Glance JB, Azzam PN. Treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal in pregnancy: case-based guidelines.Bow Women's Mental Health. 17. april 2014 (2): 167-70.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  44. Prater CD, Miller KE, Zylstra RG. Outpatient detoxification of the addicted or alcoholic patient.I am a general practitioner. 15 september 1999. 60(4): 1175-83.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  45. Gosselin P, Ladouceur R, Morin CM, Dugas MJ, Baillargeon L. Benzodiazepine withdrawal in adults with GAD: a randomized cognitive behavioral therapy trial.J Consult Clin Psychol. 74(5) Oct. 2006: 908-19.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  46. Vicens C, Sempere E, Bejarano F, Socias I, Mateu C, Fiol F, et al. Efficacy of two interventions in benzodiazepine withdrawal in long-term users: 36-month follow-up of a cluster randomized trial in primary care.Practice of Brother J Gen. 2016 Feb 66(643):e85-91.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  47. Hogue A, Liddle HA. Family treatment for adolescent substance abuse: controlled studies and new horizons in service research.J Family. Over there. 1. Mei 2009. 31(2):126-154.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].

  48. NIH. Principles for the treatment of substance use disorders in adolescents: a research-based guide. Available in based approaches. Accessed: 01/06/17.

  49. Guina J, Rossetter SR, DeRHODES BJ, Nahhas RW, Welton RS. Benzodiazepines in posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.J Psychiatriepraxis. 21 July 2015 (4): 281-303.[QxMD-link MEDLINE].


Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Nathanial Hackett

Last Updated: 09/19/2023

Views: 6130

Rating: 4.1 / 5 (52 voted)

Reviews: 91% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Nathanial Hackett

Birthday: 1997-10-09

Address: Apt. 935 264 Abshire Canyon, South Nerissachester, NM 01800

Phone: +9752624861224

Job: Forward Technology Assistant

Hobby: Listening to music, Shopping, Vacation, Baton twirling, Flower arranging, Blacksmithing, Do it yourself

Introduction: My name is Nathanial Hackett, I am a lovely, curious, smiling, lively, thoughtful, courageous, lively person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.